Sewage Treatment Plant (STP)

In early 1900, domestic wastewater i.e. sewage was generally disposed off either in pits, open ground or on surface water bodies. Due to increase in population and rapid industrialization, urban development took place resulted in accumulation of waste in densely crowded habitation/cluster. In order to protect public health and maintain a good standard of living, it became a necessity to treat domestic wastewater before letting it flow into surface streams.
Waste water treatment systems consist of collection, transport and treatment of domestic waste water along with its safe disposal. It thus became necessary to establish centralized as well as decentralized domestic sewage treatment plants. These plants are a vital component of infrastructure planning and development of any community. Much emphasis is now being provided on constructing adequate capacity of high performance sewage treatment plants.

Pollution Control Board has periodically published various guidelines to achieve best possible effluent parameters after treatment at a reasonable cost in an effective manner. Various technologies are developed to cater to sewage treatment needs based on Aerobic, Anaerobic or combination of aerobic/anaerobic process.

Following are the conventional technologies which were popular in India:

Following are the Advanced Technologies which are popular in India: